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Cosmetic Surgery

Cosmetic surgery is a subcategory of plastic surgery. The goal of cosmetic surgery is enhancing a person’s appearance through surgery. Cosmetic surgery is a purely elective procedure as it focuses on improving appearance rather than restoring functionality.

What are the different types of cosmetic surgery?

Cosmetic surgery can be performed on numerous body parts. Some of the common types of procedures are:

  • Facial contouring are procedures performed to attain sharp facial features. Contouring can be performed for the forehead, eyebrows, nose, cheeks, lips, chin and jawline.
  • A tummy tuck is a procedure to flatten the abdomen area by removing excess skin and fat and tightening the muscles.
  • Facial rejuvenation aims at restoring a youthful appearance to the face. Facelifts, eye lifts and neck lifts are common rejuvenation procedures falling under the category.
  • Skin rejuvenation procedures make use of various fillers that are injected into the skin to smoothen wrinkles and thereby slow down effects of aging.
  • Breast augmentation- This is the most popular cosmetic procedure which uses implants to enhance the size and shape of breasts.
  • Nasal Reshaping or rhinoplasty is the process of reshaping the nose to improve your appearance.
  • Less invasive cosmetic surgery procedures may include peels, fillers, injections, skin grafting, and laser treatment.
  • Hair transplantation is a type of cosmetic treatment which aims at renewing hair growth.

What are the risks related to cosmetic surgery?

All surgeries carry their own risk factors. Those with a history of cardiovascular disease, lung disease, or diabetes are at a higher risk of developing complications such as pneumonia, stroke, heart attack or blood clots in the legs or lungs post surgery. Smoking also interferes with the healing process. Other risks associated with cosmetic surgery are:

  • Poor outcome
  • Poor wound healing
  • Scarring
  • Infection of the wound
  • Damage of the nerves or numbness
  • Hematoma or pooling of blood outside a blood vessel
  • Seroma or collection of lymphatic fluid
  • Necrosis or tissue destruction
  • Bleeding
  • Blood clots
  • Issues related to anesthesia
  • Psychological issues post surgery

How is the procedure carried out?

  • Your surgeon will explain in detail how cosmetic surgery can change your body and what outcome you can expect. Understanding the procedure, options and possible outcomes will help you make the best decision. You will also be informed about specific procedures, the benefits, risks, and possible complications, as well as alternative therapies if any. The physician may also recommend additional procedures to improve the overall result.
  • You will be advised on what medications to take, dietary plans to be followed, activity and work restrictions and how much pain to expect post surgery. By following these instructions diligently, you can minimize the risks and complications of surgery.
  • A preoperative examination will be carried out before surgery to assess the general health status of the patient.
  • Cosmetic surgery procedures requiring general anesthesia are performed under the care of an anesthesiologist. Others procedures, such as injections of facial fillers, may be performed under local anesthesia.
  • After the procedure, you will be monitored for any complications.


The goal of cosmetic surgery is improvement and not perfection. Each person will have a different outcome. The recovery time also varies person to person. So it is important to keep realistic expectations from the surgery.


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